About Ceramic art in Iran
The art of ceramic in Iran has a very long history and since the Achaemenid period, ceramic vessels can still be seen with a very long history among the relics of that period. Iranians have long valued art in all fields and the works of artists have always been used by the people these works were considered very valuable. Ceramic art is one of these types of art that has had a special place among the people of the world in the past. Ceramic art generally means making objects with a variety of silicates. In this article, we intend to introduce this beautiful art and its history in ancient Iran so far. Persian ceramic art and the world have an old history that you will get acquainted with in the following.
The art of Ceramics
Ceramic furniture and utensils are one of the best human inventions that have been used widely by everyone throughout history. Today, this furniture is used much more widely in a diversity of ways, and at least one ceramic piece of furniture can be found in all of our houses or workplaces. The art of ceramic in Iran has also developed significantly in recent years, and today you can find a variety of this Persian furniture in a diversity of colors and designs for sale.
Ceramic art is generally the construction of objects made of silicates, which can produce different results in different ways. Because these objects are baked to create enough hardness and hardening at high temperatures, the word ceramic has a Greek root meaning cooked, and in Sanskrit, it also means cooked things. So, the very important thing about ceramics is that almost all of them have the same construction method and have to go through the same steps.
Today, different types of ceramics are used in a wide range of fields. For example, all-porcelain, Persian glass, crystal, and Persian pottery are part of the art of ceramics, as well as tiling and utensils such as sinks, bathtubs, and sanitary ware, and some other utensils such as glazed metal utensils are among the ceramic arts. This industry currently accounts for about one-third of the existing industries in the world.
The history of ceramic art
As mentioned, Persian ceramic art has a very long history and ceramic and pottery are the most important remnants of old cities, many of which can now be seen in museums around the world. Ceramic art is also very old in the world and people have used this art in the form of Persian dishes and later in various forms for many years.
But you should note that although the Egyptians were also very good at making ceramics and many vessels were discovered in the tombs of the pharaohs that are related to their lifetime, according to historians, the oldest ceramic vessel discovered belongs to Iran. Many vessels from the Achaemenid period have been discovered, according to which historians have been able to obtain a great deal of information about the way of life of the people and kings in that period. The dating of the environment and other artifacts is usually done through these vessels, and finding historical vessels in an environment indicates the existence of ancient life in that place and helps to discover more historical monuments.
In the history of Iran after the Achaemenid period, this art has been very popular and ceramic utensils have always been used in people’s lives. Ceramic art was very popular in Iran after Islam until the Seljuk period, and people used this type of glazed pottery a lot. Also, after the Mongol invasion of Iran, the style of pottery and ceramic art underwent major changes in Iran and went to the Chinese style. This style led artists to use ceramic compounds in the tiling and decoration of buildings, and since then, the floor Persian tiles and interior walls of the building have become increasingly popular. So today you will not find any building that at least part of it is not tiled.
This art continued during the Safavid period, and during this time, artists presented very beautiful works in the field of tiling and utensils. The use of colored tiles in decorating the exterior and interior of the building became popular during this period. During the Pahlavi era and the reign of Reza Shah, the first tile factory was opened in Iran and gradually this art became an all-encompassing industry.
Steps of making ceramic ware
In Persian ceramic art, the process of making ceramic furniture is divided into two stages. The first step is to create the shape of the main body and the second step is to paint and apply glaze to the body. In the following, we will peruse the steps of making a pottery dish, which is a part of the art of making ceramics.
Step one: Creating the body
To make the body of a pottery dish, you must first prepare Persian clay with a suitable firmness of clay in combination with water. The clay is then shaped into a utensil by apparatus or by hand, allowing the utensil to dry completely in the open air with no water left. After drying, the utensil is placed in the oven and the temperature of the oven is gradually raised for 5 to 6 hours until it reaches 800 to 1000 degrees Celsius. Then remove the utensil from the oven and allow it to cool. This method makes a container very resistant to impact and moisture.
Step two: Glazing
The glaze is made according to the needs of the utensil or objects made by combining a large number of chemicals. The presence of glaze on ceramic dishes helps to make the utensil stronger and more durable. This glaze can be without color or with various colors and can be created with special designs on the dish. After applying the glaze to the pottery utensil, the dish is placed in the oven again and the glaze is completely dried on the dish. After complete drying, the utensil cools and is now ready for use and has a lot of strength and beauty.
Persian ceramic art has many artists and fans in many fields, including utensils, tiles, and sanitary ware, and you can find these utensils and objects in different sizes and shapes for purchase.